In the later part of the sass the manual labor based economy of the Kingdom of Great Britain began to be replaced by one dominated by industry and the manufacture of machinery. It started with the mechanization of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal. Once started it spread. Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways.
The introduction of steam power (fuelled primarily by coal) and powered machinery (mainly in textile manufacturing) underpinned the dramatic increases in production capacity. The development of all-metal machine tools in the first two decades of the 19th century facilitated the manufacture of more production machines for manufacturing in other industries. The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 1 9th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of this change on society was enormous.
The first Industrial Revolution merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1 850, when technological and economic progress gained momentum with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the nineteenth century with the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation. The period of time covered by the Industrial Revolution varies with different historians. Eric Hobbs held that it ‘broke out’ in the sass and was not fully felt until the 1 sass or sass, while T. S.
Gaston held that it occurred slough between 1 760 and 1830. Some twentieth century historians such as John Clap ham and Nicholas Crafts have argued that the process of economic and social change took place gradually and the term revolution is not a true description of what took place. This is still a subject of debate amongst historians. GAP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy. The industrial revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies.