[Solved] What are the characteristics of stream flow (hydrology) in urban environments?

Scientific report on the hydrology of urban streams and benefits of restoration. 1) As part of the introduction – What are the characteristics of stream flow (hydrology) in urban environments? 2) As part of the results – Using the results of your calculations, explain how changing roughness impacts on stream flow hydrology in an urban stream? 3) As part of the discussion – Assume that the aim of urban stream restoration is to reduce flow velocity to improve public safety, minimise sediment erosion and improve physical structure (i.e. geomorphology). What types of restoration/rehabilitation can be undertaken to achieve these geomorphic aims? [Hint: read Chin et al. (2013) and take a walk around campus for examples (Mars Creek behind Y3A, University Creek between Research Park Drive and Innovation Rd)].

 

Assignment 1 of ENVS117/ENVS602 (15%)

Scientific report on the hydrology of urban streams and benefits of restoration

 

Write no more than 1500 words. Tables, figures, captions and references do not count in the word tally.

 

ASSIGNMENT SUBMISSION PROCESS

 

You are required to submit this assignment to the online plagiarism software Turnitin. A Turnitin submission link will be provided on the iLearn page. Only final assignments should be submitted to Turnitin. You do not have the option to remove the assignment once you have submitted it.

 

Assignments submitted after the due date and time are marked as late by Turnitin and you will receive a late penalty(10% of the assignment marks per day including weekends). Only the submission you make to Turnitin will be marked and you will be provided with online feedback.

 

OVERVIEW

 

In the Terrestrial Environment Module Practicals 2 and 3 you undertook a surveying exercise across an urban stream on the university campus. You processed this data and used velocity and discharge equations to analyse and quantify the flow characteristics for this stream. You will be using the skills learnt in those practicals (and the lecture on “Catchments and flooding in river systems”) in this assignment.

 

In this assignment you will:

  • Use the information provided below to undertake calculations of flow velocity and discharge for the channel cross-section provided, using three different roughness (Manning’s n) values.
  • Research the scientific literature using your library database skills to investigate urban stream restoration approaches and their effects on stream flow and storm flow (hydrology). At least 10 scientific references should be used in your assignment including the compulsory reading, Chin et al. (2013).
  • Write a brief scientific report. Only the scientific report is to be handed in to Turnitin. Do not hand in this assignment information and calculation sheet. The Data and Calculations section below should be written up (transferred) to the results section of your report (see section below on report structure).

 

Data and calculations – urban stream cross section and hydrology

 

Figure 1 shows a cross section of an urban stream. You will use this cross section to calculate flow velocity and discharge for a range of different roughness (Manning’s n) scenarios.  Remember the velocity and discharge equations:

 

Flow velocity equation

 

V = [(D2/3) x (S1/2) ÷ n], where

 

V = mean channel velocity (m/s)

D = flow depth (m)

S = water surface slope (m/m; often approximated by the slope of the bed)

n = Manning’s roughness coefficient

Discharge equation

 

Q = V x A,where

 

Q = discharge (m3/s)

V = velocity (m/s)

A = cross-sectional area (m2)

 

Figure 1 Cross-section across an urban stream at Macquarie University

 

Using this channel cross-section, complete Table 1. Channel slope has been provided for you. This table will need to be reproduced as part of the results section of your scientific report.

 

Table 1 Hydrology of an urban stream at Macquarie University

Channel slope (m/m) 0.006
Bankfull channel depth (m)
Bankfull channel width (m)
Channel cross-sectional area (m2)

 

Three different Manning’s n roughness parameters are provided in Table 2. Use these to calculate the flow velocity and discharge for scenarios 1, 2, and 3. This table will need to be reproduced as part of the results section of your scientific report.

Table 2 Roughness scenarios, flow velocity and discharge characteristics of an urban stream at Macquarie University

Manning’s n roughness for scenario 1 (smooth stormwater pipe) 0.009
Manning’s n roughness for scenario 2 (moderate in-channel vegetation) 0.05
Manning’s n roughness for scenario 3 (woody debris and dense in-channel vegetation) 0.2
Flow velocity for scenario 1
Flow velocity for scenario 2
Flow velocity for scenario 3
Discharge for scenario 1
Discharge for scenario 2
Discharge for scenario 3

 

assignment questions

 

  • As part of the introduction – What are the characteristics of stream flow (hydrology) in urban environments?
  • As part of the results – Using the results of your calculations, explain how changing roughness impacts on stream flow hydrology in an urban stream?
  • As part of the discussion – Assume that the aim of urban stream restoration is to reduce flow velocity to improve public safety, minimise sediment erosion and improve physical structure (i.e. geomorphology). What types of restoration/rehabilitation can be undertaken to achieve these geomorphic aims? [Hint: read Chin et al. (2013) and take a walk around campus for examples (Mars Creek behind Y3A, University Creek between Research Park Drive and Innovation Rd)].

 

Scientific report STRUCTURE

 

Your scientific report should have the following sections and appropriate referencing. Below is a rough guide of the proportion of the report that each section should make up.

 

Introduction (15% of report length)

  • Short literature review on the topic, using an appropriate referencing style.
  • You will need to define terms such as urban hydrology.  Answer assignment Question 1 as part of the introduction.
  • State the aims of the assignment.

Methods (10% of report length)

  • Brief summary of how you went about calculating the data for your report and the methods you used in your research of the topic.

Results (20% of report length)

  • You will present the data and calculations you undertook in the section above on Data and calculations.
  • You can present this in any way you wish, but good use of figures and tables is critical.  Be imaginative!  You should reproduce the cross section and tables provided above as a minimum.
  • You need to describe, in the text, the values you have calculated and any trends you see in the data and support this with figures (i.e. put the text first!).  You should never put a figure or table into a report and then provide no description of what they show. Answer assignment Question 2 in the results.
  • Make sure you add titles to your figures and tables and you place these into the correct locations in the report.
  • You can choose to include any other information you think is necessary to present the data.

Discussion (50% of report length)

  • This is where you interpret the data and answer assignment Questions 3.  This should be a coherent body of text with a well argued and researched case (i.e. no dot points).
  • You may chose to use subheadings to define each question/section – this is fine.
  • To do this section well you will need to relate your answers to the literature and use an appropriate referencing style.

Conclusion (5% of report length)

  • One paragraph summary of findings.

Reference list (no set length)

  • Set out in Harvard referencing style.
  • At least 10 scientific references should be used in your assignment including Chin et al. (2013).

 

MARKING CRITERIA

 

The marking sheet and rubric for this assignment is located on the ENVS117/ENVS602 iLearn page in the Terrestrial Environment module folder under assessment. You will receive online feedback for this assignment.

 

You will be marked on all aspects of your report and its presentation with particular emphasis on the results and discussion sections. Your referencing style will also be marked.

 

SOME INITIAL IDEAS FOR REFERENCES

 

You should use references that are directly related to the topic. Remember: Google and Wikipedia are NOT OK – you must use scientific sources of information (e.g. journal articles) or reputable web sources (e.g. government agencies and industry).  Use the skills you learnt in practical 1 and assignment 1.  You are expected to reference more than those mentioned below.

 

Compulsory reading (attached to ENVS117/ENVS602 iLearn site):

Chin, A., O’Dowd. A.P. and Gregory, K.J. 2013. Urbanization and river channels. In Schroder, L. and Wohl, E., (Eds.). Treatise on Geomorphology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. vol. 9 Fluvial Geomorphology, pp. 809-827.

 

Other references to start with:

Bernhardt, E.S. and Palmer, M.A. 2007. Restoring streams in an urbanized world. Freshwater Biology, 52, 738-751.

Ladson, A. 2004. Optimising Urban Stream Rehabilitation and Execution. Technical Report 04/7. Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 43pp.

Rutherfurd, I.D., Jerie, K. and Marsh, N. 2000. A Rehabilitation Manual for Australian Streams, Volumes 1 and 2. Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology, and the Land and Water Resources Research and Development Corporation, Canberra. Available at http://lwa.gov.au/products/pr000324

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