[Solved] Sexual and Reproductive Health in Guatemala

Guidelines for Global Strategic Resource Allocation Assignment

Topic: Sexual and Reproductive Health in Guatemala

This assignment is designed to provide an opportunity for students to explore resource allocation for a designated global health topic (disease, illness, or issue) for a selected country.

Each student must select a global health topic that is a problem in another part of the world. The topic may be a health problem in the United States as well, but the emphasis of your assignment should be on a global health topic, and how it is a problem in a specific part of the world – a country, excluding the United States (US).

Before selecting a topic and specific country for your paper, each student needs to review the resources posted in the unit lessons, unit keynote, and assigned readings. Selecting an appropriate topic is necessary to meet the rubric requirements.

Search the literature for global health issues and US global policy and initiatives that allocate human and financial resources to the particular health issue. In addition, check the websites for governmental, nongovernmental, private foundations, and business/corporate sector. Avoid the use of news media sources,

An important aspect to keep in mind is that the emphasis of the assignment should be on human and financial resource allocation for the global health topic for a selected country (not a continent).

Topic Selection:

  • The first student to select a topic in a specific part of the world (not the US) will be the one to post in the forum about the issue.
  • No two students may select the same topicThe first student to list the health care topic will ‘own’ that topic for the class discussion. Faculty will not monitor forum or approve topic –The intent of posting your selected topic and country is so that students will not select the same topic.

 

Grading Rubric

/3  Social and Economic Factors – Why is this an issue?  Who are those involved?  How are they impacted?  Discuss economic impact for selected country.  Who does it cost?  How much does it cost?  Use specific $, %. #, etc.

/2   U.S. global health policies and initiatives  – Identify U.S. global health policies and initiatives specific to selected country for the global health topic.  Discuss the human & financial resources allocated.  Provide specific $, #’s, %, etc.

/4  Resource allocation – Discuss human and financial resources allocated to the global health topic specific to selected country.  Identify governmental, nongovernmental, foreign government, private foundations, global partnerships, pharmaceutical companies, etc.  Specify which entities are dedicating which resources (human/financial) to the global health issue.  Discuss at least two (2) entities allocating resources and provides specific $, #’s, %, etc.

/2  Progress – Discuss the progress being made in addressing the global health issue for the selected country.  Identify additional human and financial resources needed to combat the global health topic.

/4  Cross post – Gives a substantive cross post to at least two (2) students. Thoroughly discusses an additional point to the original post specific to selected topic/country, or adds another organization that has an imitative on the topic/country and has allocated other resources to the problem for the selected topic/country in the original post.  New or additional peer reviewed references should be cited in both cross posts.

/15   Total Points

 

For the forum discussions:

  • Each student will post an initial discussion post of 750-1000 words in the forum.  Support your discussion with at least 3-5 references.
  • Students will then cross posts to at least two other students contributing to a robust class discussion.  Each cross posts should be 250-500 words.  Be sure to include at least one reference in each crosspost as well. Students should utilize different references than used in initial posting.
  • APA formatting with reference citations. Primary references should be timely, published within the previous five (5) years.
  • Submit initial post to turnitin.com prior to posting in forum. Do not post turnitin similarity report in forum.
  • No title page is required in the Forum.
  • Use heading consistent with rubric for initial post.
  • First person may be used.
  • All posts should be posted in the text box – Do not attach documents that require opening to read. Be sure to review the instructions for copying and pasting from a Word document into Sakai forums that can be found in the Student Resources and Policies tab of the site.
  • When posting the initial forum discussion, select “start a new conversation”.
  • Title initial post using title/brief description of selected provision.
  • When posting the cross post, select “reply to initial message” to post your cross posts.
  • Once you have completed your initial post, submit a PDF copy of turnitin report (initial post only) to the designated ‘Assignment’ area.
  • It is not acceptable to “Edit” your Forum post after the due date or after receiving feedback from faculty or your peers.
  • Up to 20% of the total points for this assignment may be deducted for an overall lack of scholarship to include: late posts, APA errors, grammatical errors, incorrect spelling, over the limit, failure to follow instructions, etc.

 

Textbooks –

Goudreau, K. A. & Smolenski, M. C. (2014). Health policy and advanced nursing practice. New York, NY: Springer.

  • Chapter 26 – Advanced Practice Nursing: The Global Perspective
  • Chapter 31 – Health Policy for Special Needs Populations: Advanced Practice Nursing in Low Income Countries

OR

Goudreau, K. A. & Smolenski, M. C. (2018). Health policy and advanced nursing practice. New York, NY: Springer.

  • Chapter 27 – Health Policy for APRN: An International Perspective
  • Chapter 28 – Credentialing Across the Globe: Approaches and Applications
  • Chapter 29 – Advanced Practice Nursing: The Global Perspective

 

Hamric, A.B., Hanson, C.M., Tracy, M.F.& O’Grady, E.T. (2014). Advanced Practice Nursing: An integrative approach (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier

  • Chapter 11 – Leadership

 

 

 

Keynote:

 

Global Resource Allocation 

 

There are many challenges in global health and these challenges are perpetuated as global leaders fail to recognize the critical role that nurses play in this area (Ahmed, Andrist, Davis, & Fuller, 2013). Global health is becoming increasingly incorporated into national and public health discussions across disciplines. Insisting on a more inclusive view of global health serves many vital functions (Ahmed et al, 2013).   A dvance practice nurses (APNs) must have a thorough understanding of the broader social and political context of health, illness, and wellness (Milstead, 2016).

 

The shared accountability acknowledges the interconnectedness of our world. Booming industry, social conditions, and modernity have garnered increased international mobility for both people and pathogens (Ahmed et al, 2013). There are multiple health care issues throughout the world that affect the entire global society in many ways.  We live in a global society, and the advancements in technology and travel have led to an international interconnectedness that affects the health of individuals (Nickitis, Middaugh, & Aries, 2016).  A disease in one country is easily transmitted by travelers throughout the world. Health care boundaries are constantly evolving – we can be almost anywhere in the world in 36 hours. Transmission of infectious diseases across continents is now a reality while the devastating effects of noncommunicable diseases are also felt through our mutual interconnectedness. No nation can effectively remove itself from this responsibility of addressing global health, nor is it in their best interest (Ahmed et al, 2013).

No matter where we live, our well being depends on how health issues are managed around the world because of:

  • Travel and migration
  • Inadequate public health infrastructure
  • Urbanization
  • Globalization of trade
  • Aging and chronic diseases
  • Epic natural events
  • Infectious diseases

Global heath reflects an important evolution in thinking about health care issues in the world that transcend national borders, class, race, ethnicity, and culture.  These health problems have a global, political, and economic impact.  Global health includes health problems that are ideally addressed by cooperative actions and whose solutions involve multiple countries.  Countries must learn from each other regarding how diseases spread and how they can be treated and controlled.  Working to solve global health issues helps ensure that financial resources are fairly distributed (Holtz, 2013). The World Health Organization (2012) defines health as ” a state of complete, physical, mental, social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity” (p. 1).  Global health takes into account the health of populations in a worldwide context and includes perspectives and health issues of all nations.  Global health strategies requires collaboration and cooperation among individuals, populations, political leaders, and policy makers working with public health to implement sustainable change (Nikitas et al, 2016).

Official health policy in any country affects the delivery of health care in a country. Have you considered how the health status of individuals or populations affect policy making in a country? The presence of communicable diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis, the presence on noncommunicable health issues such as nutrition, environmental issues, and  lack of basic human needs affect how allocation of resources and directs how a country allocates resources for these health related issues.

Global and International Health Agencies – There are a variety of agencies that are involved in global or international health efforts. These agencies can be loosely grouped as:

  • Bilateral agencies  – one example is the United States Agency for International Development (USAID),
  • Multilateral agencies – examples include the World Health Organization (WHO), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF).
  • Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) – include philanthropic foundations, corporations and other organizations that engage in activities to address various issues throughout the world.  NGOs have been assuming more responsibility for global issues.  In addition, private donors may prefer to work through NGOs because issues can be resolved faster without a lot of “red tape”. NGOs typically have knowledge of local needs and can assist in grassroot activities to promote hath care initiatives.
  • Global Health Partnerships (GHPs)- The emergence of GHPs has been an important development. Some have been established specifically to act as global health funding agents, two of which stand out – the Global Fund and Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI).

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals were launched in 2000 .  Dashboards published on the World Banks Database show the process towards meeting the eight MDGs relates to child mortality, maternal heath, poverty, education, HIV/Malaria, the environment, and global partnerships.  The target year for achieving these improvements in health is 2015, but unfortunately health trends are not promising. Even in a setting of increased awareness of health disparities and greater commitments from richer nations to global health campaigns, needs far outweigh efforts.   The World Health Organization (WHO) identifies the gaps in achieving the goals as gaps in social justice, responsibility, implementation, and knowledge (WHO, 2006). There are no quick or easy “fixes” for the gaps identified by WHO. Viewing global health as a shared responsibility continues to be difficult in settings of financial stressors and the changing dynamic of the economic and political strife in many countries in the world.

The U.S. governments Global Health Initiative (GHI) is building successful bipartisan leadership in global health and achieving sustainable results around the world.  Combating global disease protects not only citizens of the U.S. but people living all over the world.  According to USAID (2012), global health is vital to national security and investing in other countries reduces instability that sparks conflict and drives economic growth that strengthens families, communities, and countries.

 

References

 

Ahmed, S.W., Andrist, L.C., Davis,. S.M., & Fuller, V.J. (2013). DNP education, practice, and policy: Redesigning advanced practice roles for the 21st century. New York: NY:  Springer

Holtz, C. (2013). Global healthcare: Issues and polices (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett

Milstead, J. A. (2016). Health policy and politics (5th ed.) Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett

Nickitas, D. M., Middaugh, D. J., & Aries, N. (2016). Policy and politics for nurses and other health professionals. (2nd ed.). Sudsbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett

World Health Organization (WHO). (2006). Engaging in health-eleventh general programme of work 2006–2015: A global health agenda. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2006/GPW_eng.pdf

World Health Organization (WHO). (2012). Definition of health. Retrieved from www.who.int/en/

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