[Solved] QUESTION 1 (1) It is common knowledge that in the course of history many people were accused of practicing witchcraft and cruelly punished.

QUESTION 1

  1. (1) It is common knowledge that in the course of history many people were accused of practicing witchcraft and cruelly punished. (2) What is less known—and more bizarre—is that during the Middle Ages, animals were also tried and publicly executed as witches. (3) These creatures were tried by special courts and suffered torture and death. (4) For example, in 1740, a French judge found a cow guilty of sorcery and ordered it hanged until dead. (5) Even earlier, in 1386, a French judge ordered that a pig have its feet mutilated and then be hanged for killing a little girl. (6) The pig, thought to be “possessed,” was then dressed up in the child’s jacket and dragged to the town square, where the punishment took place.

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QUESTION 2

  1. (1) Today, bottled water is extremely popular. (2) People buy it—often at a premium price—because they think it is cleaner and healthier than tap water. (3) However, 25 percent of bottled water does not come from natural springs or wells. (4) Instead, it comes from municipal tap water sources. (5) The standards used to package it for resale are the same ones used to regulate public water supplies. (6) In fact, there have been numerous accounts of bottled water being contaminated with pollutants and other chemicals. (7) People have even gotten sick from drinking bottled water they mistakenly thought was clean and pure. (8) In other words, bottled water is often no better than tap water—even though it’s much more expensive.

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QUESTION 3

  1. (1) Children were an important part of the labor force during the nineteenth century. (2) One of the most unpleasant and dangerous jobs performed by children in the 1800s was chimney sweeping. (3) Employed heavily in England, “chimney sweeps”—kids as young as four or five—were sent crawling up 14 inch chimneys to remove soot and ash deposits by hand. (4) Since the chimney surfaces were generally smooth inside, only the pressure of the children’s elbows and knees kept the small boys up. (5) The black soot and ash got into cuts and scrapes caused by climbing the dark chimney shafts. (6) It also filled the lungs of children forced to do the work—causing respiratory diseases, and in some cases, death. (7) To force children to work, older boys were often employed to hold lighted straws or sharp pins to the feet of the sweeps to “encourage” them to climb higher.

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QUESTION 4

  1. (1) On October 12, 1999, the United Nations officially declared that the human population had reached six billion. (2) The U.S. Census Bureau, however, claimed the date for this landmark was on July nineteenth, three months earlier. (3) Even in the age of information technology and communication, counting the number of people in the world is very difficult. (4) Some countries have never even taken a census, and those that have been done may not be accurate. (5) Governments may overstate or understate their populations to make their countries appear larger and more important or smaller and more stable than they really are. (6) Adding to the problem is that individuals, especially if they are homeless, refugees, or illegal aliens, may not want to be counted or identified.

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QUESTION 5

  1. (1) Today, many Americans take for granted their writing pads and computer paper. (2) But paper had a long history of development before it reached North America. (3) The Egyptians first discovered that the papyrus plant could be made into paper in the year 2500 B.C. (4) In China a court official, Cai Lun, discovered that paper could be made from trees in 105 A.D. (5) In Europe, wood-based paper did not appear until much later. (6) Spain gained knowledge of papermaking skills from the Arab occupation in 1150. (7) This knowledge then spread throughout Europe and, later, to the American colonies.

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QUESTION 6

  1. (1) A hurricane is by far the most powerful event on Earth. (2) The average hurricane encompasses a million cubic miles of atmosphere. (3) The amount of energy generated by a single hurricane could provide all the electric power needed by the United Sates for three or four years. (4) All the nuclear weapons in the U.S. and former Soviet Union do not contain enough energy to keep a large hurricane going for one day. (5) So much rain can fall during a hurricane that soil turns to liquid. (6) Hillsides slump into valleys, and birds drown in flight. (7) In 1970 a hurricane drowned half a million people in what is now Bangladesh. (8) In 1938, a hurricane covered downtown Providence, Rhode Island, with ten feet of ocean. (9) Waves generated by that storm were so huge that they literally shook the Earth; seismographs in Alaska picked up their impact five thousand miles away.

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QUESTION 7

  1. (1) Less than a hundred years ago, marriage was a central goal for most Americans. (2) At that time, it was seen as the only legitimate avenue for sexual expression, childbearing, and emotional intimacy. (3) However, statistics reveal that marriage’s role in American life is no longer so central. (4) First of all, the proportion of unmarried adults in the U.S. is higher now than in the previous hundred years. (5) Second, the rate of marriages in young adulthood is the lowest it has been in 50 years. (6) Next, the divorce rate is 49 percent of the marriage rate, meaning that nearly half of all marriages lead to divorce—not lifelong companionship. (7) And finally, nearly half of all first births are to single mothers, who are increasingly unlikely to marry the fathers.

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QUESTION 8

  1. (1) When facing a difficult task—like cleaning a messy bedroom or writing a long paper—many people choose to “put things off” or “wait until later.” (2) While common, procrastination can lead to serious problems, including stress. (3) Fortunately, there are several simple steps which can prevent procrastination. (4) First, just get started. (5) All beginnings are difficult, but once you have taken the first step on any project, the job will become easier. (6) Second, try to break the big job down into little tasks. (7) For example, instead of thinking of finishing the entire report, just work on a section. (8) A few little jobs are much easier to complete than a single big task. (9) Third, try to give yourself deadlines. (10) This is tough because you—not someone else—are setting the rules. (11) Still, if your deadlines are realistic, you will be encouraged to work steadily, instead of waiting until the last minute. (12) Finally, think of a reward for each deadline you set. (13) It could be an hour off to listen to your favorite CD, or a night to go out with a friend.

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QUESTION 9

  1. (1) Advertisers work hard to make supermarket consumers believe that buying name-brand goods is the only way to go. (2) But in reality, there is often little difference between expensive name-brand grocery store items and the lower-priced economy items. (3) For example, Kellogg’s Frosted Flakes are made of simple ingredients: cornflakes and sugar. (4) No-Frills or Econo-Buy Sugared Flakes are the exact same thing. (5) The same is true for items such as canned vegetables. (6) Often the farms and factories that package corn for Green Giant also package it for the no-name brand. (7) Even the metal cans used for each are identical! (8) The price difference between name brands and the generic brands is a result of advertising—it costs millions of dollars to put Tony the Tiger or the Green Giant on your television.

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QUESTION 10

  1. (1) For some people, accepting criticism in the workplace can be very difficult. (2) However, unless you are the perfect employee (and no one is), your supervisor is likely to find fault with your work at some point. (3) To be ready for your boss’s criticism, keep in mind some helpful tips. (4) First, even when he or she is angry with you, try to keep your cool. (5) If you manage to remain professional and civil, you will allow him or her to vent. (6) Next, listen. (7) Critics are almost always partially right, and the truth hurts. (8) So expect to have an emotional gut reaction. (9) Just don’t act on it. (10) Third, learn to paraphrase any complaints your boss has about your work. (11) When you do, he or she will appreciate that you are listening. (12) Finally, respond. (13) If the criticism is fair, try to come up with a direct action you will take to improve. (14) Feel free to ask for suggestions if you think it would be helpful. (15) However, if the criticism is unfair or inaccurate, promise to think about it. (16) This sends a signal to your boss that you have taken his or her words seriously, even if you do disagree.

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