1. Plasma is ____ while formed elements are ____.
A. a blood gas; blood clots
B. the liquid portion of blood; the cells
C. lacking in protein; regulators of blood osmolality
D. the cellular portion of blood; acellular components
E. mostly protein; the matrix
2. Which of the following functions is associated with the blood?
A. delivery of oxygen to tissue cells
B. transport of digestive enzymes to the small intestine
C. maintenance of DNA content of egg cells
D. transport of neurotransmitters across synapses
E. electrical stimulation of the heart
3. A blood clot that forms when a blood vessel is cut is an example of blood functioning in
4. If the function of carbonic anhydrase was inhibited, which method of carbon dioxide transport in the blood would be affected to the greatest degree?
A. in the form of water
B. dissolved carbon dioxide
E. bound to heme of hemoglobin
5. Which of the following plasma proteins is most abundant?
A. is one of the formed elements.
B. is the liquid matrix of the blood.
C. transports waste products but not nutrients.
D. accounts for less than half of the blood volume.
E. is serum plus formed elements.
7. Functions of plasma proteins include
A. body temperature regulation.
B. regulation of osmotic pressure.
C. transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
D. serving as a source of energy for metabolism.
E. buffering the blood.
8. The plasma component that forms fibrin, the insoluble protein, in a blood clot is
9. Each body function on the left is correctly matched with the corresponding function of the blood on the right EXCEPT:
A. respiration – transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
B. immune function – platelet factors initiate coagulation
C. acid-base balance – buffers acids and bases
D. thermoregulation – allows heat to escape from the body at the skin
E. osmotic balance of the blood – plasma proteins contribute to it
10. The antibodies that circulate in the plasma are made by
A. the liver, which makes all of the plasma proteins.
B. the kidney, which monitors plasma composition.
C. B lymphocytes or plasma cells, which are part of the immune system.
D. the spleen, which uses them to tag red blood cells for destruction.
E. monocytes that become macrophages.
11. For a person whose hematocrit is 45%, in which choice below are the components of blood correctly ranked in order of decreasing percent volume?
A. WBCs, plasma, RBCs
B. RBCs, WBCs, plasma
C. plasma, RBCs, WBCs
D. plasma, WBCs, RBCs
E. WBCs, RBCs, plasma
12. The only formed elements that possess a nucleus when mature are the
13. Stem cells
A. are specialized cells.
B. are found in yellow bone marrow.
C. form branches of trees.
D. are abundant in the plasma.
E. give rise to formed elements in the blood.
14. Which of the following is (are) associated with decreased hematopoiesis?
B. vitamin B12 deficiency
C. iron deficiency anemia
D. restricted blood flow to the kidney
E. both vitamin B12 deficiency and iron deficiency anemia
15. Neutrophils of the blood are derived from a population of stem cells called
16. Which of the following phrases is least likely to be used in describing erythrocytes?
A. biconcave cells
B. cells can change shape
C. cytoplasm contains hemoglobin
D. nucleus is centrally located
E. cannot undergo mitosis
17. Mature erythrocytes
A. have a centrally located nucleus.
B. are actually just cellular fragments.
C. contain hemoglobin in their cytoplasm.
D. mature from cells called megakaryocytes.
E. do not contain protein.
18. In adults, red blood cells are made in one place, spend most of their lifespan in another, and most are finally destroyed in yet another place. Which choice lists these locations in the correct chronological order?
A. bone marrow; blood vessels; spleen
B. bone marrow; spleen; blood vessels
C. spleen; blood vessels; spleen
D. blood vessels; spleen; bone marrow
E. spleen; blood vessels; bone marrow
19. Which blood component is NOT correctly matched with its function?
A. erythrocytes – transport oxygen
B. leukocytes – protect against disease
C. platelets – phagocytize bacteria
D. plasma proteins – maintain blood osmotic pressure; involved in clotting
E. monocytes – become macrophages
20. Which of the following statements regarding leukocytes is TRUE?
A. Leukocytes have no nucleus.
B. Leukocytes play a role in oxygen transport.
C. Leukocytes are the largest of the formed elements.
D. Leukocytes are only fragments of cells.
E. There is only one kind of leukocyte.
21. Which of the following is an agranulocyte?
22. The ability of white blood cells to leave the circulation and enter tissues is called
23. A person with an increased eosinophil count might be suffering from
A. an allergic reaction.
B. a viral infection.
C. an acute bacterial infection.
D. a chronic bacterial infection.
E. a head cold.
24. Which of the following formed elements do not have chromosomes?
D. erythrocytes and reticulocytes
E. erythrocytes, reticulocytes and erythroblasts
25. Which of the following cell types is incorrectly matched with its description?
A. neutrophils – most numerous WBCs
B. basophils – release histamine
C. lymphocytes – become macrophages
D. monocytes – largest of the WBCs
E. eosinophils – parasites
26. Which of the following is a stage of hemostasis?
C. platelet formation
D. vascular dilation
27. During platelet plug formation,
A. platelets stick to the exposed collagen fibers of injured vessels.
B. activated platelets release fibrinogen.
C. thrombin is released from endothelial cells.
D. vitamin K production increases.
E. platelets multiply.
28. In the platelet release reaction,
A. factor XII is activated.
B. ADP and thromboxanes stimulate other platelets to become activated.
C. activated platelets are connected by fibrinogen.
D. prostaglandin production is inhibited.
E. platelets convert to fibrin.
29. Which of the following events is one of the three main stages of coagulation?
A. conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
B. platelet aggregation
C. conversion of thrombin to prothrombin
D. platelet plug formation
E. calcium is released
30. An increased amount of heparin in the blood might
A. speed up the clotting process.
B. slow down the clotting process.
C. stop the clotting process.
D. enhance the clotting process.
E. have no effect on the clotting process.
31. Agglutination of red blood cells means
A. they rupture.
B. they form a clot.
C. they clump together.
D. they lose their nucleus.
E. they bump into each other.
32. Type AB blood
A. has no antigens on the red cells.
B. has O antigens on the red cells.
C. has both A and B antigens on the red cells.
D. has both A and B antibodies on the red cells.
E. has both A and B antibodies in the plasma.
33. The type of cartilage associated with bone function and development is
A. elastic cartilage.
C. hyaline cartilage.
D. interstitial cartilage.
34. The connective tissue sheath of cartilage is called the
C. ligamentous cord.
A. is composed of osteons.
B. is surrounded by a membrane called the periosteum.
C. contains chondrocytes located in lacunae.
D. does not need nutrients and oxygen so it has no blood vessels.
E. is well vascularized.
36. Which of the following is correctly matched?
A. short bone – carpal bone
B. long bone – vertebra
C. irregular bone – femur
D. flat bone – phalanges of the toes
E. short bone – humerus
37. An example of a long bone would be
A. the sternum.
B. a rib.
C. a carpal bone.
D. the tibia.
E. the clavicle.
38. An X-ray determines that Peter fractured the shaft of his humerus. The break is in the _____________ of the bone.
B. epiphyseal line
D. growth plate
E. articular surface
39. The medullary cavity is
A. empty in adult bones.
B. the site where osteoblasts are found.
C. lined with an endosteum.
D. filled with fibrocartilage and elastin fibers.
E. dead space in the bone.
40. Collagen and calcium hydroxyapatite are the primary constituents of
A. bone matrix.
B. hyaline cartilage.
C. fibrous cartilage.
41. Which of the following is correctly matched?
A. osteocytes – function in bone remodeling
B. osteoclasts – responsible for resorption
C. osteoblasts – break down bone tissue
D. endosteum – lines central canal of the osteon
E. periosteum – lines the medullary cavity
42. Which of the following occurs in the formation of mineralized bone matrix?
A. Hydrogen ions form an acid environment in bone matrix.
B. Osteoblasts form collagen and proteoglycans.
C. The protein components of bone matrix are digested.
D. Ca++ is actively transported from bone matrix to the blood.
E. Blood calcium is elevated.
43. Cancellous bone tissue
A. is very dense.
B. contains concentric lamellae.
C. contains interconnecting plates called trabeculae.
D. has many spaces and lacks osteocytes.
E. is the primary component of compact bone.
44. A passageway connecting neighboring osteocytes in an osteon is a
A. central canal.
45. Intramembranous ossification
A. forms the bones of the roof of the skull.
B. is the process that produces most of the skeletal system.
C. occurs when bones develop from cartilage models.
D. occurs when osteoblasts invade the spaces left by dying cartilage cells.
E. occurs on the outer surface of the membrane.
46 The growth spurt seen in puberty is triggered by
A. parathyroid hormone.
B. sex hormones.
C. growth hormone.
D. thyroid hormone.
47. A young boy (10 years old) exhibited the following symptoms: advanced development of secondary sexual characteristics and rapid growth. Which of the following caused his condition?
A. hypersecretion of growth hormone
B. hypersecretion of testosterone
C. hypersecretion of estrogen
D. hyposecretion of estrogen
E. hypersecretion of vitamin D
48. Which of the following statements regarding calcium homeostasis is true?
A. Parathyroid hormone inhibits osteoclast activity.
B. When blood calcium levels are too low, osteoclast activity increases.
C. Increased osteoblast activity increases blood calcium levels.
D. Parathyroid hormone increases calcium loss from the kidney.
E. Calcitonin elevates blood calcium levels.
49. When blood calcium levels are low
A. ostoclast activity increases.
B. calcitonin secretion increases.
C. calcium absorption is reduced.
D. bones produce more bone tissue.
E. osteoblast activity increases.
50. Sam was a 60 year old man. As a result of picking up a heavy object he fractured the radius and ulna of his right arm. X-rays indicated that he had severe osteoporosis. His blood calcium levels were above normal and the pathologist found cancer cells that produced a hormone-like substance. That substance was most likely
A. vitamin D.
B. parathyroid hormone.
D. thyroid hormone.
E. growth hormone.