[Solved]  Effect of Cell Phone Use on health

Annotated Bibliography:  Effect of Cell Phone Use

Katya S. Dassel
PSY363, Cognitive Psychology
Argosy University, Washington D.C.

Annotated Bibliography
Cheung, O. S., & Bar, M. (2012). Visual prediction and perceptual expertise. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 83(2), 156-163.

This journal discusses about the making perfect predictions regarding the analogies within associations and perceptual inputs in memory. The prediction elements are solely based on the cortical representations and how all the procedures would be enhanced by training as well as experience. The perceptual expertise is revealed to be the expertise acquisition, which can lead to strong associative processing within the objects and features. This type of prediction is taken into consideration after the implications of visual cognition and perception skills. The human brain has the ability to predict after gaining experience.
The effect of mobile phones on the user eventually depends on the visual prediction as well as the perceptual expertise. The visual prediction refers to the visual findings, that is what are seen on the screen of the phones and the perceptual expertise refers to the experience gained by the user. They can easily and substantially predict and improvise their ability for prediction from experience.

Dinsmore, J. B., Swani, K., & Dugan, R. G. (2017). To “free” or not to “free”: Trait predictors of mobile app purchasing tendencies. Psychology & Marketing, 34(2), 227-244.

This article discusses regarding the relationship between tendency of purchasing mobile application and the traits of personality. According to this article, the personality of the individual helps him to buy his or her mobile application. The mobile applications of college students are absolutely different from the mobile applications of employees of an organization.
The mobile applications play an important role in the effect of usage. The matured or the aged persons never take up such applications, which are used for entertainment. However, the youth generation always install such applications, which are used for entertainment or games or communication. Thus, they are more involved into these applications and the usage is much more than the aged persons.

Marsh, J. E., Patel, K., Labonté, K., Threadgold, E., Skelton, F. C., Fodarella, C., … & Vachon, F. (2017). Chatting in the face of the eyewitness: The impact of extraneous cell-phone conversation on memory for a perpetrator. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale, 71(3), 183.
This article discusses about the impact of the extraneous cell phone conversation on the memory for a perpetrator. The conversation on cell phones is absolutely ubiquitous in public areas. According to a research, the ignored conversation on cell phones often impairs the eyewitness memory of the perpetrator. For an experiment, the participants were shown a video of any specific staged crime. This was shown when they were on phone conversation: 1 side of comprehensible conversation during meaningful halfalogue, both sides of comprehensible conversation during meaningful dialogue, 1 side of an incomprehensible conversation during meaningless halfalogue or being quiet. After 24 to 28 hours, the participants were able to describe the face of the perpetrator from a composite image from their memory and tried to recognize the perpetrator from a line-up. The line-up identification and face recall were solely impaired when the participants were witnesses of the crime in presence of the halfalogues, dialogue or being quiet.
The effect of cell phone use can dangerous if the limit is exceeded. As per the article, since the participants were on phone and were viewing the staged crime, they were not able to identify the perpetrator and thus the long term memory was affected. The excess use of cell phones can even lead to the impairment of the memory of the individual and hence the brain of the individual is affected. Thus, the distraction on phone calls could impair the long term memory.

Murphy, G., & Greene, C. M. (2017). Load theory behind the wheel; perceptual and cognitive load effects. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale, 71(3), 191.
This journal discusses about the effects of perceptual as well as cognitive load on the wheels. Attentiveness while driving is one of the most important and crucial requirements while any car is being drove. There is a direct effect of this distraction on the wheels of the car. If the person driving the car, will not be attentive, it is evident that he will not be able to drive the car properly and road accidents. According to a survey, around 1.3 million people regularly die in road accidents and many are injured. Mobile phone is one of the major distractions for the drivers.
The excess usage of mobile phones often creates a distraction for the drivers on road and thus accidents occur eventually. The drivers, while driving car communicates on phone and thus they are not been able to stay attentive. This leads to road accidents. This phenomenon is common in the youth generation. Special safety should be undertaken and phone calls should be avoided while a person is driving.

Punchoojit, L., & Hongwarittorrn, N. (2017). Usability Studies on Mobile User Interface Design Patterns: A Systematic Literature Review. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, 2017.
This peer reviewed article discusses about the rate of usability of mobile phones completely depends on the design pattern of the mobile user interface. The touch screen mobile phones completely changed the design of interaction and the user interface. The smart phones provide each and every benefit that a laptop provides, however, the screen size is smaller, when compared to a system. The portability is the major advantage of the cell phones. The article provides a brief idea about the HCI community providing benefit to the future systems.
The user interface design pattern of a cell phone plays the most important role in its usability. If the user interface will not be user friendly, it is evident the usability will be reduced and the mobile phones company will suffer losses. Thus, the effect of the usability of the mobile phones would be reduced. Similarly, when the user interface of the cell phone would be extremely user friendly and the design pattern would be simple, the usability would be more.

Sato, T., Harman, B. A., Adams, L. T., Evans, J. V., & Coolsen, M. K. (2013). The Cell Phone Reliance Scale: Validity and Reliability. Individual Differences Research, 11(3).
This article discusses about the reliance scale of a cell phone with its validity and reliability. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 195 participants eventually gave response to the 30 items on the frequency scale of six about the usability of their mobile phones. Once all the lower corrected items were discarded, the total scale of 26 items and the scale of 7 items were eventually created. These two scales had better internal consistency and thus were correlated with the various variables about the utilization of cell phones and thus the validity was constructed. In the second experiment, the reliability was tested by taking 149 participants.
Reliability and validity are the most important requirements in any cell phone, just as we rely on validity and reliability of our cognitive functioning. People utilize cell phones for the purpose of communicating with their peers. The studies have shown that the effect of cell phone consequences depend on the reliability and validity of that phone. The psychometric quality of the cell phone use represents the higher measurement of validity as well as reliability.
Higher-level executive function (EF; also called executive control) underpins the ability to manage complex tasks, such as driving, by facilitating continued focus on the task or goal (e.g., attention on the road, driving tasks and the destination), while filtering relevant and irrelevant information (e.g., dealing with distractions) and adapting to the task demands (e.g., navigating roadway conditions and traffic). As studies have shown, the eexecutive function broadly encompasses a number of capacities and domains (e.g., working memory, inhibition, set-shifting. Additionally, low EF is also related to impulsivity, sensation seeking and other risk-taking behaviors. It is also found that it is linked atypical development, poor attention and decision making and impulsivity, although many studies are still cofirmimg.
Lee, V. K., Champagne, C. R., & Francescutti, L. H. (2013). Fatal distraction: Cell phone use while driving. Canadian Family Physician, 59(7), 723–725.

As we have learned from readings, 2 tasks simultaneously, especially visually is difficult to perform at the same time because they interfere with one other and performance is reduced in the human cognition. Many try to over compensate by driving sower or even increasing and following too closely, which can cause accidents. Those who claim to dial and text message without having to look at their devices acquire inattention blindness, in which we know occurs when a person is looking at a something (zoning) or at a stimulus and does not perceive it or process a response to it. When operating a vehicle, the cognition is distributed amongst the tasks, and aren’t capable able to having their normal quicker reaction time react to the varying traffic situations and road conditions, despite their eyes appearing to being on the road. A study found that “cell phone use while driving might be as or more dangerous than driving with a blood alcohol level at the legal limit.” Conversation on cell phones has shown to slow driver reaction time by 18%, “while alcohol (at a concentration in the blood of 0.08 weight/volume) slows reaction time by 12%!”
Many citizens wouldn’t even consider stepping foot into a car with a mind alternating substance, but they should realize by know with the many warnings, that it is just as serious and the consequences with the laws are becoming more and more serious each year.

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