[Solved] Course Topics and Objectives Revisited

Quiz Instructions

Course Topics & Objectives – Revisited

This quiz assignment requires answers to the same series of fifteen questions focused on course topics related to some of the learning objectives that were posed at the beginning of the course, plus an additional question that seeks a commentary on how your responses to these questions have changed. Thus, the aim is to explore how your understanding of ocean phenomena and data has developed during this course.

In each instance points will be earned from correct answers to each question, complemented by additional responses that explain how knowledge you’re acquired has helped to change your understanding of these topics or perspective toward them.

This quiz is worth 20 points, which are bonus points that contribute to your overall class grade.

Question 1 1 pts

Ocean Bathymetry:

If you traveled by ship eastward across the Atlantic Ocean from New York, New York, to Lisbon, Portugal, where would you expect to traverse the deepest water? Are the deepest waters found in the middle of the ocean, halfway across the Atlantic? Or are they elsewhere within the Atlantic Ocean?

You examined the characteristics of ocean depths in Module 4 on bathymetry, especially in the exercise that utilized TopoMaps (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. provided by the website for Satellite Geodesy operated by Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Which location or locations identified by letters from the image identify where the deepest waters in the Atlantic Ocean occur along a traverse from New York, New York, to Lisbon, Portugal?

AtlanticMap.png

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 2 1 pts

Earthquakes:

Does the magnitude of earthquakes increase with depth? In other words, do shallow earthquakes (< 50 km deep) have lower magnitude (i.e. lower numbers on the Richter scale) than deep earthquakes (> 250 km deep)?

The earthquake exercise in Module 5 examines this possibility, and the differences between shallow and deep earthquakes were further explored in one of the individual exercises that formed part of the mid-term exam.

Which two of the following answers correctly describes the characteristics of deep earthquakes?

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 3 1 pts

Tectonic Plates:

A significant part of module 5 explored the nature of Earth’s interior and the speed at which tectonic plate move. How fast do tectonic plates move? Is their motion typically measured in terms of km/yr or m/yr or mm/year or µm/year or nm/yr (i.e. annual rates of motion in the range of kilometers, meters, millimeters, micrometers or nanometers)?

What is the approximate range for the rates of tectonic plate motion?

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 4 1 pts

Ocean Temperatures:

How does the temperature of the deep ocean compare with that of the surface ocean? Do the temperatures at the seafloor vary seasonally, like those of the overlying surface waters?

The exercise on ocean temperatures and salinity examined data from the Levitus Ocean Atlas, including differences between the surface and deep ocean.

Which two of the following statements about deep ocean temperatures are correct?

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 5 1 pts

Hurricanes:

Is the speed of movement of a hurricane across the ocean governed by the speed of the winds associated with the hurricane and its magnitude? Does a Category 5 hurricane move faster across the ocean than a Category 2 hurricane?

The hurricanes exercise in Module 8 examined their characteristics, including the relationship between their wind speed and movement across the surface of the ocean and land.

Which of the following statements describing the movement of hurricanes is correct?

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 6 1 pts

Ocean Currents:

If you placed a message in a bottle and dropped it in the Pacific Ocean East of Japan where might you expect it to be found two or five years later if it remained buoyant?

The ocean currents exercise in Module 9 examined the paths of material floating in the ocean, and the class materials illustrate the fate of debris from the 2011 Japanese tsunami.

Which of the following answers best represents the fate of the bottle?

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 7 1 pts

Tsunami Waves:

Earthquakes triggered in oceanic areas, like those occurring off the west coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004 and offshore Honshu, Japan, in the Pacific Ocean on Mar. 11, 2011, can produce tsunamis. The waves generated by these events can affect coastlines thousands of km distant. What is a typical speed (in km/hr) for tsunami as they travel across the ocean?

The second introductory group activity calculated the speed of tsunami triggered by the 2011 Töhoku earthquake based on he timing of the arrival of tsunami waves in the Pacific islands, Alaska and the west coast of the U.S.

Which of the following answers correctly describes the speed of tsunamis?

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 8 1 pts

Tides:

The water level along ocean coastlines varies with the tides, which can be predicted for individual locations. Why do the timing and magnitude of tides differ from station to station along a coastline and why are they predictable?

Module 11 explained the controls on tides in different ocean basins and the ocean tides exercise examined their characteristics along coastlines.

Which two of the following statements about the characteristics of tidal motion and tides are correct?

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 9 1 pts

Marine Ecology:

What physical factors determine whether specific ocean environments are habitable by particular marine organisms, and how are different biota adapted to their habitat?

Aspects of marine ecology were explored in Module 12, which considered the variety of ecological relationship between marine organisms and their environment.

Which description best characterizes the predominant control on the zonation of marine organisms on rocky shores and sandy shores?

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 10 1 pts

Ocean Productivity:

Which regions of the ocean tend to most productive? What characteristics of these areas enables them to sustain substantive fish populations?

Various factors influence ocean productivity that were assessed using satellite data in the productivity exercise of Module 13, with the sustainability of fish populations supported by phytoplankton explored in Module 17.

Select the appropriate locations designated by letter codes in the image below to identify areas of high and low ocean productivity.

ProductivityMap.png

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 11 1 pts

Beach Evolution:

How are beaches altered by coastal engineering (i.e. man-made structures) and why?

Examples of beach development, erosion, and refurbishment and the effects of engineered structures on sand movement were examined using Google Earth in Module 15.

In the coastline image below what is the direction of longshore transport of sand and the name of the type of structures between the two man-made inlets?

Beach Evolution Image.png

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 12 1 pts

Marine Organisms – Bluefin Tuna:

What are the typical speeds attained by bluefin tuna during their migrations across the Pacific Ocean? How many days does it take them to travel from the Californian coast to Japan?

Data from tracking the movement of bluefin tuna, great white sharks, and elephant seals was examined in the Module 16 exercise on life in the ocean.

Which answer best describes the speed and transit time for the migrations of bluefin tuna across the Pacific Ocean?

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 13 1 pts

Ocean Resources:

Like other nations the U.S. has jurisdiction over its territorial waters. How far from the coastline do these waters extend, and does the U.S. have exclusive economic rights to exploit and use marine resources within them?

Module 17 on ocean resources addressed the scope of territorial waters.

How far does the economic exclusion zone (EEZ) extend from coastlines according to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea?

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 14 1 pts

Human Impact on the Ocean:

What types of evidence show that marine biota are adversely affected by oil spillages? What characteristics of the spillage influence the magnitude of its effects?

The fate of oil spillages was explored in Module 18, which also considered the broad impact of human activities on the ocean and marine life.

Which of the following processes involved in the degradation of oil spillages continues for months to years?

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 15 1 pts

Global Climate Change:

Are all regions of the Earth similarly affected by the changes in climate resulting from increasing levels of atmospheric CO2? Which areas show the greatest temperature change over the past 40+ years?

Module 19 on global climate change with examine data on increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 and its effect on Earth’s temperatures linked to recognition of how climate is changing

Which of the following regions of the Earth has experienced the greatest temperature change over the last 40 years?

(1 Bonus pt)

Question 16 5 pts

Commentary

Summarize in about 50-80 words how your perspectives on specific class topics has been changed by what you’ve learned during the course.

(A strong answer will provide specific examples how your understanding of course topics and/or particular characteristics of the ocean has changed based on what you’ve learned during the class.)

(5 Bonus pt)

Do this based off all the assignments you have helped me on throughout this year. Thanks!


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