[Solved] Advanced Epidemiology and Biostatistics

Advanced Epidemiology and Biostatistics

This test includes two sections.

The first section is 18 questions.

The second section is 7 questions related to analyzing and interpreting the data. Download and use the file “sample_data_Assignment2_Spring2018_200.sav

 

The total score is 50 points (25% of the grade).

 

All the questions must be answered and provide rationale for the answers and show the calculations.

  1. What type of measurement can be used to measure the following variables: age in years, pain scale score, and blood type?

Age in years: _________________ [ONE POINT]

Income level [low, medium, high]: ____________________________ [ONE POINT]

Blood Type: ______________________ [ONE POINT]

Temperature: ________________________ [ONE POINT]

  1. What type of statistics (mention all possible statistics) can be used to describe the variables: age in years, pain scale score, and blood type?

Age in Years: _________________ [ONE POINT]

Pain Scale Score: ____________________________[ONE POINT]

 

Blood Type: ______________________[ONE POINT]

  1. What is Type II error? Give example [TWO POINTS]
  2. Does a set of scores with most of its values above the mean have a negatively or positively skewed distribution? Provide a rationale for your answer. [ONE POINT]
  3. t-statistics = -4.5 and p-value=0.04 describe the difference between women and men for mental health score.

5a. if alpha is set to 0.05, is the p-value of 0.04 statistically significant? [ONE POINT]

5b. in a sentence, interpret the p value of 0.04. Provide a rationale for your answer [ONE POINT]

  1. What is a Type I error? Give example [TWO POINTS]
  2. The following list represents the number of nursing students enrolled in a particular nursing program between the years of 2001 and 2007, respectively: 510, 564, 621, 540, 510, 610, 510. Determine the mean, median, and mode of the number of the nursing students enrolled in the above program between 2001 and 2007. Show your calculations. [THREE POINTS]

Mean =

Median =

 

Mode=

 

 

  1. A study found that the correlation “r” value for the relationship between serum level of triglyceride and the length of stay in the hospital is 0.63 and p-value was 0.03.

 

8a. Interpret the “r” value of 0.63 [strength and direction] and provide a rationale for your answer. [ONE POINT]

 

8b. If alpha is set to be 0.05, is this “r” value of 0.63 and p-value of 0.03 statistically significant? [ONE POINT]

 

 

9. What is the statistical test (procedure) that is used to determine whether a significant difference exists between three or more group means? [ONE POINT] 
A) t-test
B) ANOVA
C) Correlation coefficient
D) Mann Whitney U test
10.  What type of hypothesis is represented by the statement “women who smoke are as likely to have low-birth-weight babies as women who do not”? [ONE POINT]

 

A) Alternative hypothesis
B) Non-directional
C) Research
D) Null hypothesis 
11. The nurse researcher is calculating the standard deviation. What is the standard deviation? [ONE POINT] 
A) The average amount of deviation of values from the mode and is calculated for every other score
B) The average amount of deviation of values from the median and is calculated for every other score
C) The average amount of deviation of values from the mean and is calculated for every score
D) The average amount of deviation of values from the median and is     calculated for every score

 

 

12. What test would a nurse researcher use to test hypotheses about group differences in proportions? [ONE POINT] 
A) t-test
B) ANOVA
C) Correlation coefficient
D) Chi-square

 

 

13. The independent variable is weight gain during pregnancy. The dependent variable is the infant’s birth weight. What is the appropriate test statistic? [ONE POINT] 
A) t-test
B) ANOVA
C) Chi-square
D) Pearson’s r

 

 

14. The nurse researcher is reading about the standard deviation of a sampling distribution. What is this called? [ONE POINT] 
A) Sampling error
B) Standard error
C) Variance
D) Mean square

 

15.  What is the name for the shape of distribution that occurs when the nurse researcher has a bell-shaped curve distribution? [ONE POINT] 
A)    Frequency
B)     Unimodal
C)    Multimodal
D)    Normal

 

16. What parametric statistical method(s) a researcher can use to determine if the mean body mass index of the population is the same for two groups of subjects (group1=diet restriction; group2=none).A. The name of the statistical test is ________________[ONE POINT]

B. The null hypothesis of the statistical test is _______________[ONE POINT]

C. The alternative hypothesis of the statistical test is _________[ONE POINT]

 

  1. What non-parametric statistical method(s) a researcher can use to determine if the mean body mass index of the population is the same for two groups of subjects (group1=diet restriction; group2=none).
  2. The name of the statistical test is ________________(ONE POINT)

 

18. What parametric statistical method(s) a researcher can use to determine if the mean body mass index of the population is the same for three groups of subjects (group1=diet restriction; group2=exercise; group3=none).A. The name of the statistical test is ________________  [ONE POINT]

B. The null hypothesis of the statistical test is ______________ [ONE POINT]

C. The alternative hypothesis of the statistical test is _________ [ONE POINT]

 

USING THE DATA SET DOWNLOADED FROM BLACKBOARD

“sample_data_Assignment2_Spring2018_200.sav”

Answer the following questions:

  1. Do frequency for the following variables and interpret the findings:

[FOUR POINTS]

 

Agecat (Age category), Gender, diabetes (history of diabetes), dhosp (died in hospital).

  1. Do descriptive statistics and histogram with normal distribution and interpret the results for the following variables: [TWO POINTS]

 

Los_rehab (length of stay for rehabilitation) and fasting_glucose_level (fasting glucose level)

 

  1. Is there a difference between those who died in the hospital and those who did not die in the hospital [variable name= dhosp (died in hospital)] in the following variables:

 

– fasting glucose level [ONE POINT]

 

– los_rehab (length of stay for rehabilitation) [ONE POINT]

 

  1. What statistical test you will use?
  2. Is the difference between the two groups [those who died in the hospital and those who did not die in the hospital [variable name= dhosp (died in hospital)] statistically significant? Explain and interpret the finding
  3. Is there a difference between the Age groups [variable name= Agecat] in the following variables:

 

– fasting glucose level (fasting_glucose_level) [ONE POINT]

 

– los_rehab (length of stay for rehabilitation) [ONE POINT]

 

  1. What statistical test you will use?
  2. Is the difference statistically significant? Explain and interpret the finding
  3. Is there a correlation between age (age at admission in years), los_rehab (length of stay for rehabilitation), cost (total treatment and rehabilitation costs in thousands) and fasting_glucose_level (fasting glucose level)? [TWO POINTS]
  4. Report the correlation coefficient (r) [direction and strength] and interpret the results.
  5. Are there relationship between patient’s death in the hospital (VARIABLE NAME=dhosp) and the following variables:
  6. Diabetes (history of diabetes) [ONE POINT]
  7. Bp (Blood pressure). [ONE POINT]
  8. What statistical test you will use?
  9. Is any of these relationships statistically significant?
    1. If yes, which relationship?

Explain and interpret the findings.

 

  1. Write a ONE PAGE summary report for the results of the study and its impact on nursing practice (i.e., summarize the findings from question 1 to 6) [THREE POINTS]

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