A person with normal color vision is referred to as a:
The coiled, snail-like tube in the inner ear that is filled with fluid is called the:
c. organ of Corti.
When a nerve impulse is sent to the brain from the ear, that impulse originates from:
a. the eardrum.
b. the hair cells on the organ of Corti.
c. the oval window.
d.the basilar membrane.
Pheromones are most relevant to which sense?
Which of the following examples best illustrates the process of perception?
a. recognizing the voice of your best friend
b. detecting a faint sound during a hearing test
c. a sensory neuron in the eye responds to a light hitting it
d.a drop of sugar hitting the taste buds on your tongue
Tactile information regarding pressure, pain, and warmth are sent to and processed in the:
a. motor cortex.
b. frontal lobe.
c. somatosensory cortex.
Imagine you are dribbling a basketball. Neural messages provided by your muscles, tendons, and joints give your brain feedback about the movements you are making in order to allow you to continue bouncing the ball. This feedback is an example of your:
a. vestibular sense.
b. olfactory sense.
c. kinesthetic sense.
The depth perception cues that require the use of only one eye are called:
a. convergence cues.
b. singular cues.
c. monocular cues.
Visual illusions are primarily of interest to researchers studying perception because they:
a. provide valuable information on sensory adaptation.
b. provide information about how key photopigments in the retina function.
c. provide important information about how perceptual processes work under normal conditions.
d.represent instances in which the dual-process theory of vision fails.
One study found that when presented with a picture of a group of people in a house, North American and European participants perceived an object as being a window behind a woman, while East Africans interpreted the same object as a box or basket on top of the woman’s head. This study best illustrates:
a.the effect of cultural experiences on picture perception.
b. the effect of biology on sensation.
c. the Gestalt law of continuity.
d.a conflict between shape constancy and size constancy.
Joey has no trouble seeing when he’s reading books and working on his computer, but he has a fair amount of difficulty seeing things in the distance. Joey most likely suffers from:
b. color blindness.
In the eye, ________ are the color receptors and function best in bright illumination.
The process in which the qualities of a sensory stimulus are converted into nerve impulses is specifically called:
All of the following are cone sensitivity color pairs predicted by the opponent-process theory of color EXCEPT:
Frequency determines the _____________ of a sound, while amplitude determines the _____________ of a sound.
a. loudness; pitch
b. loudness; decibels
c. pitch; loudness
Studies examining newborn infants’ visual preferences suggest that an infant would be most interested in which of the following?
a. a white circle
b. a black circle
c. a circle with a simple pattern inside of it.
d.a circle with a complex pattern inside of it.
Jean Piaget used the term __________ to refer to organized patterns of thought and action that guide children’s interactions with the world.
Susan is a young child and she happens to know that fish swim. One day at the zoo, Susan sees a penguin swimming in a pool. Susan turns to her mother and says, “Look, the black-and-white fish is swimming!” The fact that Susan calls the penguin a fish best illustrates:
b. the process of assimilation.
c. egocentric thinking.
d.a failure to understand object permanence.
Which of the following is most strongly associated with Jean Piaget’s sensorimotor stage of cognitive development?
a. object permanence
A child who has developed object permanence but does not yet fully grasp the idea of conservation is most likely in Jean Piaget’s ____________ stage.
a. formal operational
c. concrete operational
Which of the following placements of a hypothetical third eye would be most characteristic of a child in the concrete operational stage?
a. between her other two eyes
b. on her hand
c. on the back of her head
d.on top of her head
The concept “theory of mind” is most closely related to which of the following constructs?
b. zone of proximal development
c. object permanence
The text defines _____________ as a biologically based predisposition to react to the environment in specific behavioral and emotional ways.
c. a zone of proximal development
In his research with monkeys, Harry Harlow found results suggesting that the process of animal attachment is facilitated by:
a. the first object that moves after a monkey is born.
b. receiving nutrition from the mother.
c. receiving social reinforcement from both parents.
d.body contact with a comforting object.
Which of the following lists John Bowlby’s phases of attachment behaviors in the proper order, from earliest to latest?
a. indiscriminate, discriminate, and specific
b. indiscriminate, specific, and discriminate
c. discriminate, indiscriminate, and specific
specific, indiscriminant, and discriminate
Which of the following statements concerning attachment is TRUE?
a. Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety occur at approximately the same time, when the child is about 6 or 7 months old.
b. Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety occur at approximately the same time, when the child is between 12 and 16 months old.
c. Stranger anxiety develops around the age of 6 or 7 months, whereas separation anxiety develops somewhere between the ages of 12 and 16 months.
d.Separation anxiety develops around the age of 6 or 7 months, whereas stranger anxiety develops somewhere between the ages of 12 and 16 months.
The “strange situation” is most strongly associated with which of the following?
b. moral development
When placed in the strange situation, Eric shows no distress at all when his mother leaves the room, and by the same token, he isn’t very excited when she returns. Overall, he doesn’t appear to be very attached to his mother, but he doesn’t resist when she picks him up to give him a kiss. Eric would most likely be classified by Mary Ainsworth as:
b. securely attached.
Which of Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is obtained during adolescence?
a. the postconventional stage
b. the preoperational stage
c. the concrete operational stage
d.the formal operational stage
A child is told a story about Bobby, who puts his teddy bear under his bed and then goes outside to play. While he is gone, Bobby’s mother comes in to clean his room, finds his teddy bear, and puts it in the closet. When asked where Bobby will look for his teddy bear when he returns, most 2- and 3-year-olds will say ____________ and most 4-year-olds will say ___________.
a. under the bed; under the bed as well
b. in the closet; in the closet as well
c. under the bed; in the closet
d.in the closet; under the bed
You decide to take a swim in a mountain lake after a long hike. When you first get in, the water feels extremely cold and you almost decide to get out, but after you take a few timid strokes, the water starts to feel less cold. Within a few minutes, the water merely feels refreshing and no longer feels like an ice bath. This example best illustrates the process of:
a. response cost punishment.
b. negative reinforcement.
Habituation has __________________ because it allows organisms to learn NOT to respond to _____________ stimuli.
a. extinction value; changing
b. strong adaptive significance; uneventful and familiar
c. a low response cost; novel
d.high secondary reinforcement value; discriminative
When Pavlov was conditioning his dogs to salivate in response to a tone, he first paired the tone with the presentation of food until the tone alone could induce salivation. In his experiments, which of the following was the unconditioned stimulus?
a. salivation in response to the food
b. the food
c. salivation in response to the tone
Pavlov observed that when he conditioned dogs to salivate to a particular tone, not only would they salivate to this tone but also to other similar tones. This phenomenon is known as:
a. negative reinforcement.
b. stimulus discrimination.
In classical conditioning, discrimination refers to how a(n):
a. CR can be triggered by many different stimuli.
b. CR is triggered by one stimulus but not by others.
c. CR can fade when a CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS.
d.UCS can become a CS.
A researcher in a classical conditioning experiment first conditions a dog to salivate in response to the presentation of a red circle. After this response has been established, she presents a light immediately before she displays the circle and after several trials, the light comes to trigger the salivation response. This example best demonstrates the process of:
b. stimulus generalization.
c. backward pairing of the CS and UCS.
John Watson and Rosalie Rayner (1920) conducted experiments with an 11-month-old baby named Albert to demonstrate how:
a. a neutral stimulus can become a CS by being paired with an established CS.
b. the principles of classical conditioning can be used to explain and create phobias.
c. the process of extinction is observable even in infants.
d.the key factor in classical conditioning is the perception of an association between the CS and the UCS.
Edward Thorndike based his “law of effect” on which of the following observations?
a. With trial and error, hungry cats will eventually learn to press a lever in order to escape a puzzle box.
b. The immune systems of rats can be improved or impaired by pairing specific drugs with distinct tastes.
c. Baby Albert was conditioned to fear a white rat and other similar-looking objects.
d.Dogs can be trained to salivate in response to a tone.
A mother has been continually nagging her daughter about how messy her room is. Finally, the daughter gets so tired of her mom’s complaints that she cleans her room, thus stopping the nagging of her mother. Given the fact that the withdrawal of the mother’s nagging served to strengthen the daughter’s room-cleaning behavior, the mother’s nagging would be considered a(n):
b. positive reinforcer.
c. aversive punishment.
d.response cost punishment.
While walking through the mall, a young boy sees a new pair of shoes and immediately tells his grandmother that he would like to have them. The grandma initially refuses, prompting the boy to get upset and he starts to cry. The grandma hates to see her grandson get upset, so she changes her mind and buys him the shoes. In this example, we could say that the grandma’s initial refusal was _____________ and the boy’s mini-tantrum was ____________.
a. the conditioned stimulus; the conditioned response
b. the consequence; the discriminative stimulus
c. classically extinguished; extinguished via operant conditioning
d.aversively punished; positively reinforced
Shaping is defined as the process in which:
a. successive approximations of a desired behavior are reinforced.
b. a behavior is weakened by the removal of a consequence.
c. a neutral stimuli becomes a “reinforcer” because of its association with a primary reinforcer.
d.a behavior is strengthened by the presentation of a consequence.
Bobby’s parents are frustrated because he never cleans his room. In order to modify their son’s behavior, they start reinforcing (with 25 cents) every time he simply throws his clothes into a particular corner instead of all around the room. After some time passes, they only reinforce him if he puts his clothes in the hamper. As this process continues, Bobby’s parents keep gradually changing the terms of reinforcement so that Bobby has to do more and more of the tasks required to keep his room clean. After several months of this, Bobby cleans his entire room for the same 25-cent reward. This example best demonstrates the process of:
c. higher-order reinforcement.
A reinforcement system that utilizes such things as points or chips that can be redeemed later for tangible rewards to reinforce desired behavior is called:
a. a token economy.
c. classical conditioning.
The term ______________ refers to how animals appear to be biologically “prewired” to easily learn behaviors that are related to their survival as a species because of evolutionary forces.
a. latent learning
b. operant extinction
d.fixed action pattern
Which of the following is most strongly related to the concept of instinctive drift?
a. a chicken being trained to play baseball reacted to the ball as if it were food
b. rats that were shocked associated the shock with a buzzer and light but not a sweet taste
c. rats made ill by X-rays associated it with sweet water but not a light or buzzer
d.a coyote learns to avoid sheep because ranchers have paired sheep meat with lithium chloride
According to learning theorists, insight involves the:
a. positive reinforcement of a conditioned response on a variable schedule of reinforcement.
b. sudden perception of a useful relationship that helps to solve a problem.
c. identification of antecedent stimuli that indicate when a behavior will have certain consequences.
d.association of a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
A new skier who first watches and then copies his experienced friends is most likely making use of which learning strategy?
b. observational learning
c. positive reinforcement
Incoming visual or auditory information that is stored just long enough to be recognized is stored in:
a. procedural memory.
b. short-term memory.
c. declarative memory.
Individual items are grouped into larger units of meaning in a process called:
The capacity of ____________ memory appears to be unlimited.
_____________ is best defined as intentional processing that requires conscious attention.
a. Sensory processing
b. Effortful processing
c. Implicit memory
If I were to ask you whether the word “force” rhymed with the word “course,” to make this distinction you would have to use __________ encoding, a method of processing that is considered to be _______ “deep” than/as semantic encoding.
a. structural; more
b. structural; less
c. phonological; equally
Your memory of what happened to you on a childhood trip to Disneyland would best be considered an example of:
a. procedural memory.
b. implicit memory.
c. semantic memory.
The amnesia patient H.M. was able to correctly perform a mirror-tracing task, but he had no recollection of ever having learned it. This example most clearly illustrates the difference between:
a. explicit memory and declarative memory.
b. procedural memory and declarative memory.
c. implicit memory and nondeclarative memory.
d.semantic memory and episodic memory.
This multiple choice test question would be considered an example of a test of:
a. episodic memory.
b. semantic memory.
c. implicit memory.
When you enter a nice restaurant, you typically expect that a host or hostess will seat you, that you will receive a menu before you order, and that you will receive a bill at the conclusion of the meal. These thoughts together are best considered to be an example of:
a. a retrieval cue.
A __________ is any external or internal stimulus that triggers the activation of information stored in long-term memory.
a. prospective memory
b. semantic trigger
c. flashbulb memory
Imagine that you have studied for an exam in a quiet environment and your physiological arousal has been low while you were studying. If on the day of the exam you were given the test in a quiet environment and your physiological arousal remained low, the concept of state-dependent memory would predict that your recall would __________ and the concept of context-dependent memory would predict that your recall would ___________.
a. worse; also be worse
b. better; be worse
c. worse; be better
d.better; also be better
When old memories interfere with a person’s ability to recall newer memories, it is called:
a. retrograde amnesia.
b. proactive interference.
c. anterograde amnesia.
The text discussed the case of a woman suffering from memory loss who could not consciously remember the fact that a researcher had pinpricked her hand the last time they met. Though her memory for events that took place prior to the amnesia is normal, after the amnesia she has experienced difficulty creating new memories. Her memory loss is best considered to be an example of:
a. retrograde amnesia.
b. retroactive interference.
c. proactive interference.