moral philosophy

Moral Philosophy “Principles or rules that people use to decide what is right or wrong” 1. TELEOLOGY:- * An act is considered morally right or acceptable if it produces some desired result, i. e. , pleasure, knowledge, career growth, a self-interest, or utility. * Theory that derives duty from what is valuable as an end, in a manner diametrically opposed to deontological ethics. Teleological ethics holds that the basic standard of duty is the contribution that an action makes to the realization of nonmoral values. * The word teleology comes from the Greek roots telos, which means end, andlogos, which means science.

Thus, teleology is the “science of ends. ” * Ethical Egoism: an action is morally right if the consequences of the action,right or acceptable behavior in terms of consequences for the individual * Ethical Utilitarianism: an action is morally right if the consequences of the action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone. vorable than unfavorable only to the moral agent performing the action. Example no 1. a consequentialist moral system might justify the torture and murder of an innocent child if it would lead to a cure for all forms of cancer.

The question of whether or not we should really be committed to taking responsibility forall of the consequences of our actions is another issue which critics bring up. After all, if the morality of my action is dependent upon all of its consequences, then I am taking responsibility for them – but those consequences will reach far and wide in ways I cannot anticipate or comprehend. Example no 2. In class, for example, some of you who said that it would be good to torture the person who had been arrested argued that the outcomes would be better if we did torture him (lives saved, etc) than if we did not (thousands killed, etc).

That is using a teleological or consequentialist kind of thinking to determine which course of action would be best. 2. DEONTOLOGY:- * Deontological, or duty-based, ethical systems, on the other hand, are those that simply claim’directly and simply, what the fundamental ethical duties are. * They simply state that some things are right or wrong. Some things are your duty to do (Greek deon: duty) and other things are your duty to avoid. Example no 1. Suppose I am hiding Jews in the attic when along comes a Nazi officer looking for Jews. He comes to my door and asks whether I am hiding Jews.

I am confronted with the following decision: “Does morality allow me to lie in this case? ” I reflect on the argument I showed you above and I realize that morality does not allow me to lie in this or any other case. So, the choice to lie is wrong and the choice to not lie is right. Example no 2. a friend is banging on your door pleading to be let in because he / she is pursued by the police but in this case the police is misguided because of false information and if they catch your friend the truth will never come out. You let this person in and hide him / her.

A DE-oriented person would acknowledge the element of friendship and even realistic outlook (say this happened in a country known for corruption within the law-enforcment) but would point out that by letting this person in you take the responsibility of clearing up the matter upon yourself and should try to do that to the best of your ablity. The reason for this judgement would be that you have an obligation towards maintaining and improving law and order although it might be inconvenient, even dangerous to you. Letting the person in, then out again when the coast is clear, doing nothing more about it, would be wrong from DE point of view.

Keeping the person safe while seeking to find out what the situation actually is then deciding on further action would be the right thing to do. 3. RELATIVIST PERSPECTIVE:- “‘For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways,’ declares the Lord” (Isaiah 55:8). * Relativism theorizes that truth is different for different people, not simply that different people believe different things to be true. * Ethical relativism represents the position that there are no moral absolutes, no moral right or wrong.

This position would assert that our morals evolve and change with social norms over a period of time. Example no 1. Relying on an individual’s or a society’s moral choices is analogous to using our sense of touch to determine the extent of a child’s fever. When a child is sick, a more precise and consistent measurement is imperative. Our mental growth and the health of our soul is also worthy of a more accurate gauge than subjective human feelings. Conventional relativism implies that all you have to do is convince a few of your close friends to engage in some activity that is viewed as immoral by the rest of society.

Suddenly you have now made the previously unacceptable activity ethically and morally correct for you. “There is a way that seems right to a man, but in the end it leads to death” (Proverbs 14:12). Example no 2. in some societies, killing one’s parents after they reached a certain age was common practice, stemming from the belief that people were better off in the afterlife if they entered it while still physically active and vigorous. While such a practice would be condemned in our society, we would agree with these societies on the underlying moral principle — the duty to care for parents.

Societies, then, may differ in their application of fundamental moral principles but agree on the principles. 4. VIRTUE ETHICS:- .” The virtuous person develops a sense of right and wrong. ” Example no 1. A company has a certain DNA. If it has a permissive cultural code that that loses sight of who the customer is, it can lose the confidence of investors, workers and customers. Why should anyone invest in a fund or company if it appears that its managers condone phony accounting or insider trading?

Why patronize a casino known to give worse odds than others on the same gambling strip, unless it is “the only game in town”? If I have a choice, why work for or buy from a company that is known not to treat its workers fairly? Example no 1. children and adolescents often harm those they intend to benefit either because they do not know how to set about securing the benefit or, more importantly, because their understanding of what is beneficial and harmful is limited and often mistaken. Such ignorance in small children is rarely, if ever culpable, and frequently not in adolescents, but it usually is in adults.

Adults are culpable if they mess things up by being thoughtless, insensitive, reckless, impulsive, shortsighted, and by assuming that what suits them will suit everyone instead of taking a more objective viewpoint. They are also, importantly, culpable if their understanding of what is beneficial and harmful is mistaken. It is part of practical wisdom to know how to secure real benefits effectively; those who have practical wisdom will not make the mistake of concealing the hurtful truth from the person who really needs to know it in the belief that they are benefiting him.

References:- http://www. character-ethics. org/articles/absolutesandrelativisim. htm http://www. allaboutphilosophy. org/ethical-relativism-faq. htm http://uk. answers. yahoo. com/question/index? qid=20090910042540AAAOwSO http://atheism. about. com/od/ethicalsystems/a/Deontological. htm http://www. allaboutphilosophy. org/ethical-relativism-faq. htm http://www. csrnyc. com/philosophicalbaseofcsr/fourtypesofethics. html http://www. scu. edu/ethics/practicing/decision/ethicalrelativism. html http://plato. stanford. edu/entries/ethics-virtue/ http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Virtue_ethics

Did not find what you wanted? Get help from our experts.

Find a Perfect and Reliable Professional Essay Writer Helper to write your essay for a Reasonable Price.

best essay writing service

Need help with your Assignment?

Give us your paper requirements,and we’ll deliver the highest-quality essay at only $13 a page.

Some of the free features you will receive:

Find a perfect and reliable professional for your essay writing needs.

Essay Writing Services

If you are a student who is struggling to meet tight deadlines, we are here to help! Do you need to employ an essay writing service? Hire us if you want the best essays. We are a dedicated staff of professional, well-seasoned, and superb essay writer helpers.

Dissertation Writing Services

Did you know we provide the best dissertation writing service on the internet? We continue to receive favorable feedback from our consumers about the excellent work we produce. So, instead of worrying about whom to pay for the dissertation, contact us. We are a dedicated staff of professional, well-seasoned, and superb essay writer helpers.

Assignment Writing Services

We attempt to provide the essay help you require ensuring, that your papers are of the highest quality. When you decide to work with us, we assess your requirements and find the best writer to assist you with your essay. We are a dedicated staff of professional, well-seasoned, and superb essay writer helpers.

Nursing Essays Writing Services

Here’s how it works: you place an order for a nursing essay, and we deliver. It’s as easy as it sounds. This is workable because we have the greatest professional paper writers that are both quick and skilled. We will assign your assignment to the most qualified writer

Coursework Writing Help

Our staff of qualified and professional paper writers has continuously distinguished us as the best coursework writing help service. They are all-natural English speakers with advanced degrees in a variety of professions. We offer the best essay writing services.

Article Writing Services

Our knowledgeable and expert article writing paper writers have advanced degrees in a variety of subjects. We will assign the most appropriate one to you based on the field and topic of your article review. They are all fluent English speakers who fully grasp your requirements. We are a dedicated staff of professional, well-seasoned, and superb essay writer helpers

You May Also Like…

Violence in Sports Essay Sample

Violence in Sports Essay Sample

Violence in Sports Essay Sample From an outsider's perspective, it is hard to understand the social aspect of a sports...