biology 111 chapter 13 essay

Gametes are produced by _____________.
Meiosis
Normal human gametes carry _____ chromosomes.
23
Once Meiosis I is completed, all the cells are
Haploid
A diploid organism whose somatic (nonsex) cells each contain 32 chromosomes produces gametes containing _____ chromosomes.
16
Meiosis II begins with 2 _________ cells
Haploid
Meiosis I produces _____ cells, each of which is _____.
two, halpoid
Meiosis II typically produces _____ cells, each of which is _____.
four, haploid
During _____ sister chromatids separate.
Anaphase II
At the end of _____ and cytokinesis, haploid cells contain chromosomes that each consist of two sister chromatids.
Telophase I
Homologous chromosomes pair during _________
Prophase I
Synapsis occurs during _____.
Prophase I
Homologous chromosomes migrate to opposite poles during _____.
Anaphase I
During _____ chromosomes align single file along the equator of a haploid cell.
Metaphase II
During _____ a spindle forms in a haploid cell.
Prophase II
A human somatic cell contains _____
44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes
In alternation of generations, the diploid stage of a plant that follows fertilization is the _____.
sporophyte
Mitosis results in the formation of _____
two diploid cells
Meiosis results in the formation of ______
two haploid cells
Crossing over is _____.
the exchange of homologous portions of nonsister chromatids
Genetic variation occurs when chromosomes are shuffled in _____ and fertilization.
Meiosis
What is the Haploid Number?
23
Diploid number is ______
46
What is the result of meiosis
one set of chromosomes in each gamete
Casmata
where they cross over
What are the only haploid cells in animals
Gametes
Sporophyte makes haploid ________ by meiosis
spores
Each spore grows by mitosis into a haploid organism by called a ________
gametophyte
Fertilization of gametes results in a ____________
diploid sporophyte
The zygote produces haploid cells by ________
meiosis
Only ______ cells can go through meiosis
diploid
The two cell divisions result in ________ daughter cells, rather than _________ daughter cells in mitosis
4,2
Each daughter cells has _______ as many chromosomes as the parent cell
half
What happens during the first stage of Meiosis
homologous chromosomes seperate
What is reductional division?
meiosis one results in 2 haploid daughter cells
What is equational division
Meiosis II results in 4 haploid daughter cells with UNREPLICATED chromosomes
When does synapsis occur
Prophase I
What is a chiasmate?
where the x-shaped regions where crossing over occured
Are the two sister chromatids gentically similar during Metaphase II
no!
What are cohesions?
protein complexes
What are alleles
mutations of genes

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